Luke 14:1, 7-11
Conduct of Invited Guests and Hosts
OTHER HOMILY SOURCES:
SEE also 22nd Sunday in Ordinary Time Year C (especially Fr. Jerry Orbos book Year C)
Filipinos are shy people. We naturally shy away from prominent places, like the head of a meal table. In the barrios, especially, we even hesitate to approach a table that is ready and waiting. We wait until the host verbally invites us three times at least. The more enterprising among us, and those who are really hungry do not mind where to sit at table, as long as they could eat.
The gospel today might be good for some cultures, but for us, it might just be a story. Nevertheless the lessons Jesus wants to teach through this parable hold true for all:
- Followers of Jesus are modest and humble at all times. If humility is truth, then a humble person acknowledges that everything he/she has comes from God. Everything is a gift, even the efforts and discipline that we apply to develop our potentials that make us advance in life, financially and spiritually.
- Jesus’ followers have high regard towards their fellowmen. They do not look down anybody, rather, they consider everybody their brother/sister. The least are as important as Christ is. (Fr. Atilano Corcuera, SVD Bible Diary 2004)
What strikes me and is worth mentioning is the last sentence which says, “Everyone who makes himself great will be humbled and everyone who humbles himself will be made great.”
On a train between Dihon and Parish, France, a smartly dressed young man shared a compartment with an old man who looked like a peasant, with his soiled clothes, his awkward shoes, his closely cropped hair and weather-beaten face. What particularly amused the youth was the Rosary in the old man’s hands and the look of deep devotion on his face. With evident contempt the lad remarked: “I see you still believe in that medieval claptrap about praying your religious hogwash that priests tell you.”
“Yes, my boy, I do,” replied the old man. “Don’t you?”
“Me, believe superstitious bosh!” laugh the lad. “I learned the truth at college….and if you want to be smart, you will throw those silly beads out of the window and learn something about the new science.” “The new science,” asked the old man. “I’m afraid I don’t understand.. Perhaps you could help me.”
The college lad relented. Perhaps he has been too harsh. “Well, if you can read, I’d be happy to mail you some literature….You do read?” “Yes, after a fashion.” “Good…where shall I send it?” the elder fumbled in his coat pocket for a card and gave it to the college boy. It bore a simple inscription which today would admit the bearer to the most exclusive meeting with the world scientist….LOUIS PASTEUR, Parish Institute for Scientific Research. (Fr. Alfredo Reyes, SVD Bible Diary 2005)
There is a Filipino acronym concerning people who want to always in the limelight: KSP (Kulang Sa Pansin!). in today’s parable, Jesus reminds us that great men are usually humble persons. A little man is self-important, KSP! Humility is a tricky virtue especially among once-upon-time colonized persons like us Filipinos. We are so self-effacing to the point of beling ridiculous. How often we hear Filipinos when asked to lead, saying: “Sino ba naman ako? Bakit ako?” And yet we know they are not truly humble. We can remain humvble if daily we realize that all we have and are, are God-given. Yes, including life itself. We have to realize that all is grace. What we know is so little compared to the treasury of knowledge. What we have achieved is really so little at the end of our lives. Life and work will go on even without us being around. Our daily prayer should be: Thank you Lord for your great love for me! (Fr. Flor Camacho, SVD Bible Diary 2006)
In his book, Good to Great, Jim Collins writes: “The most remarkable CEOs of the century never wanted to become larger-than-life heroes. They never aspired to be put on a pedestal or become unreachable.” The book is saying that one factor that contributes to great leadership is humility or modesty.
The gospel today is a lesson in humility. We are told to never think of ourselves as very important and our place as very exalted. We are taught that it is all right to take the lowest place or get the farthest seat. We are reminded that if we do the will of God, we can always hope and feel confident that someday the Lord will tell us: “My friend, come up higher.”
In his goodness, God exalts the humble. In his justice, God humbles the proud. In his love and mercy, God never abandons His people, proud and humble alike. (Fr. Jose Honorio P. mateo, SVD, Bible Diary 2007)
October 29, 2016 Saturday
Banquets are occasions to share our blessings with others. Nowadays, they have increasingly become instruments for other purposes: launching a political career, enhancing one’s status, aunting one’s power and wealth. Who sits beside whom and where merits a very serious consideration. This is how society celebrates banquets. Even among church people.
A very peculiar banquet took place on a stormy day of Jan. 18, 2015, in Tacloban. One of the most influential and respected persons in the world insisted on sitting at table and celebrating a banquet not with the rich and powerful, nor with politicians and officials but with the poor, marginalized and forgotten who lost loved ones and homes to the earthquake and super typhoon that devastated the area. Pope Francis reminded us of Jesus’ injunction on how to celebrate a proper banquet (Lk 14,12-14).
Jesus advises us not to seek the places of honor but rather to take the lowest place. In the eyes of the world, the lowest place is for the lowly, the rejects and the marginalized; those who count for nothing in the wisdom of the world. But in God’s eyes, the last is the first and the least is the greatest.
In the great banquet of the Kingdom of God, the poor and the lowly not only occupy the places of honor but also sit in the company of God. Pope Francis understood this very clearly. How about you?
After working for eight years in the formation house, I received a new assignment. However, from time to time I visit the formation house and even have some group sessions with the formandi, especially with the new ones, to help them adapt to life in the community. At the end of one of these sessions, some of them ask me to pray for them so that they would persevere. In response, I tell them that one of the things I have learned in handling formation is to pray for each seminarian and each member of the community under my care. I even make sure to say at least a mass per week for them and for their intentions, since nothing can really be done without God’s help. He is the only one who can truly form hearts and minds, for these to be truly conformed to His desires. It is no wonder then that even Jesus spent time in prayer before choosing twelve of his disciples to be his closest partners in the mission. The grace of God, which one gains through prayers, is the only guarantee that these weak men will be able to live up to their vocation and carry out the task to which they are called. Prayer ripens one’s vocation — whatever that vocation is. How important for superiors of communities or of organizations and parents to pray for those under their care. We tend to forget this and complain interminably instead. Parents and elders, for example, tend to complain that today’s generation lacks maturity compared to their own generation. Instead of complaining, pray for our youth. (Fr. Herman Suico, SVD | Cebu City Bible Diary 2016)
|Prayers Before a Meal|
God’s Love Is Free
The Banquet Says It All
by Richard Rohr, O.F.M.
The great, central theme of the Bible, in my judgment, is grace, God’s favor. God’s love is literally unaccountable: It can’t be put in any ledger of accounts. Yet the mindset of merit, of buying, selling and earning, is common. Until you can give up that mindset you cannot understand the concept of grace, or truly experience it.
A biblical image for that is the banquet or meal. That’s true in the Old Testament, and even more so in the New Testament. Open table fellowship is Jesus’ most common audiovisual aid. He gives us the meal as the great image of his unconditional love—of a different consciousness, a different way of reading reality.
Interestingly, at the meals in the Gospels Jesus always says the wrong things, eats the wrong food, doesn’t practice the right rituals, invites the wrong people. There is a message in his actions.
Most people never move beyond the merits and rewards, crime and punishment. It’s the mindset that’s behind almost all novels, almost all plays, almost everybody’s script. It’s what makes capitalism run. People are always talking about the price of things, and being able to afford things. When you think that way day after day after day it can become the only name of the game.
To think of life as being solely about buying and selling is what I call meritocracy. It’s a world based on earning merit badges for some and punishment for others, for those who have not done it right. This merit system mentality seems so ingrained in the human person! Yet, the only thing we know Jesus made (see Jn 2:14-16) is a whip of cords, which he used to go into the Temple to destroy the system of buying and selling.
Until the mindset of earning and punishing is somehow eliminated you basically cannot understand the gospel. It’s been my great sadness during 30 years of priesthood to meet so many Catholics who never move beyond crime and punishment. That’s what they think God is for. We don’t let the gospel subvert our very consciousness. Yet almost all of Jesus’ parables are doing that.
We’re all familiar with the parable of the vineyard worker who comes at the last hour and gets paid as much as the one who comes at the first hour (Mt 20:1-16). Let’s be honest, most of us don’t like that. It goes against our familiar accounting system based on merit! We’ve been trained well as North Americans. We all say, “Thanks be to God,” when we hear it at Mass, but we don’t believe it or like it for one minute! It’s not the way you and I have organized the world.
Biblical scholars tell us that the parable is a unique form of literature, which is always trying to subvert, to undercut our notions. Parables are supposed to be illogical at the end so we’re confused for a few moments and can’t think the way we did before. But we don’t let parables do that. We try to figure them out inside our existing consciousness. Yet, as Einstein said, “No problem can be solved by the same consciousness that caused it.”
Christianity, in its early years, was much more attuned to the radical nature of God’s mercy. After it became the official religion of the Roman Empire in 313, you see two concepts changing quickly. Grace and forgiveness become basically politicized, legalized and organized. Suddenly we think we have the one and only measuring gauge to find who’s in and who’s out. We began to find ways to earn grace, ways to jump through the correct hoops. Yet that distorts the very concept of grace.
GRACE IS A GIFT
Here is an example from Paul’s Letter to the Ephesians: “God has loved us with so much love that God was generous with God’s mercy. When we were dead through our sins God brought us to life in Christ. Know that it is through grace that you are saved” (Eph 2:5). Clearly Paul is telling us that our salvation is a free gift from God.
Nobody can claim the credit. If this is not the case, grace is not grace. Once you try to organize it and create a “worthiness system” or “merit system” for it, you have destroyed the very possibility of it. Our tendency is in that direction, though. When someone gives you a gift you want to sort of think you earned it. Just to sit there and be unworthy of it is very hard for most of us. Perhaps you plan to “repay the debt.” But simply to receive a gift in our nakedness, in our emptiness, usually will not compute inside our system of thinking. So the good news remains bad and old; not good and not new—the same old story.
People remain in a fear-filled and often infantile world, with a calculating mind toward God, not a surrendered, trusting mind. The “buying/selling, merit/reward, punishment/crime” world is basically the world that we all begin with as children. It is a less-than-mature understanding of reality.
This view is like the reward/punishment system many people use with children: lollipops for the good children and punishment for the bad. Most people never move beyond that level of parental control in our understanding of religion. We may resist it, but it’s the central recurring theme in the Bible.
Let’s look at this from the positive side. It starts with the very concept of election, of being chosen—what’s finally called covenant love. We hear about it in the Book of Deuteronomy: God says to Israel if Yahweh set his heart on you and chose you it was not because you were greater than other peoples. In fact you were the least of all the peoples. That’s the theme. “It was for love of you and to keep the oath that He swore to your fathers that Yahweh has brought you out with His mighty hand and redeemed you from the house of slavery. It was not because you were good but because God is good” (See Dt 9:1-6).
Some friends once made a bumper sticker of this lifelong theme of my preaching: “God does not love you because you’re good, but you’re good because God loves you.” Goodness is not something you achieve. I realize this more and more as I get older, that God does almost everything. The good things I’ve been able to do have always been a participation in who God is in me. As we say at the end of the eucharistic prayer, referring to Christ, “through him, with him, in him.” The stupid, sinful things I’ve done in my life have always been the work of my private self—closed off from God.
KING DAVID’S LESSON
Did you ever notice in the Gospels that Jesus is not upset at sinners? He’s only upset at people who don’t think they’re sinners. It’s a very different world once you accept that. You can find roots of this approach in the Second Book of Samuel, chapter seven. King David wants to build Yahweh a house to prove to him that he’s a good boy, that he loves God. Through Nathan Yahweh says to David, “I don’t want you to build me a house, I will build you a house. I will give you rest from all of your enemies. Yahweh will make you great. Yahweh will build you a house and when your days are ended and you are laid to rest with your ancestors I will preserve your offspring until eternity. I will not withdraw my favor from David. I will be a father to you and you will be a son to me” (see 2 Sam 7:1-17). In other words, God’s love or favor is a free gift—not something we earn.
Then we have in verse 18 David offering this beautiful prayer back to Yahweh. This is the prayer of all of us when grace has been bestowed upon us, just as it’s the prayer of Mary when grace is bestowed upon her. “Who am I, Lord Yahweh, and what is my house that You have led me as far as this?”
That is something I want to say so often: Why, why have you been so merciful and generous? It has nothing to do with my holiness, my intelligence, my goodness, my merit. Let me tell you something: To allow yourself to be God’s beloved is to be God’s beloved. To allow yourself to be chosen is to be chosen. To allow yourself to be the blessed one is to be blessed. It’s to believe it, to trust it, to allow it to happen. And so many people will not be the beloved, they will not be the blessed, they will not allow and imagine that God could be using them in this moment. And once you allow God to use you, God does. It’s that simple, but so hard for us to believe!
From our faulty perspective, we don’t believe it yet because it’s too much to believe it. No, we think, it has to do with being holy. Or it has to do with me being intelligent and obeying the law. No, we say, it doesn’t have to do with faith and trust in God’s goodness, but your own. Think about that again and again and again. This concept is the hinge of faith—everything we do hinges on it! We want to turn it around because it’s the nature of the ego to hinge everything on our own, earned goodness.
Yet you’ll never get anywhere with that! You have lost the power and the biblical revelation at that moment. Life does not hinge on your goodness, it hinges on God’s goodness. You do good things because you are good, thanks to God’s free gift.
Ezekiel prays in a way that shows the Hebrew belief in God’s goodness. In Ezekiel 36:22 God says, “I am not doing this for your sake, house of Israel. I’m not doing this because you’ve done anything right or because you’re holy but for the sake of my holy name, which you have profaned among the nations.” In effect God is saying, “I’m going to display the holiness of my name and the nations will learn that I am Yahweh. I will display my holiness for your sake before their eyes because my reputation’s at stake.”
In this beautiful chapter we see God announcing he will purify the Israelites. It’s an act of love, what we call steadfast love, covenant love, faithful love, unconditional love. Call it one-sided love if you will. We can never keep our side of the covenant so God has to do it for us, urging us towards cooperation. This is what makes the Bible different from the other literature of the world. Meritocracy—the “frequent-flyer-point” mentality that says, “I can merit/earn God’s love through my good works”—has once and for all been dethroned.
“I shall pour clean water over you, you will be cleansed,” God says in Ezekiel. “I shall cleanse you of your defilement; you shall be my people, and I will be your God. I will rescue you, I will summon you, I shall make you plentiful. I assure you, however, I am doing this for my sake and not for yours.” That’s not a put-down. That’s a basis for great hope.
God is saying that, unlike what is usually the case in human love, God doesn’t rely upon people getting it right or doing it right. Human love depends upon the other. Is that person worthy? Is he or she attractive? Does that one merit my love? That’s the only way we humans know how to love. We hardly ever say, “Oh, I love you, you’re so ugly.” We love because we find something beautiful that we’re attracted to. God’s love is completely different. God’s love is not determined by the other.
Pause and consider this carefully: God’s love is determined by God’s goodness, and is no way dependent upon us. God tells us, I am being true to who I am in loving you. If you want to get God, if you want to pray right, remember these passages in Ezekiel and say, “O.K., God, you’ve got to do it. Your reputation is at stake. You’ve got to show me your goodness because I’ve told the people you’re good. You’ve got to be a Father to me and I will be a son or daughter to you”—and the love begins. That is the freedom of God’s love that Jesus came to proclaim.
COME TO THE BANQUET
Jesus’ image for this is the banquet. We hear the parable of the wedding banquet in Matthew 22 and in Luke 14. A king is having a wedding feast for his son and sends out his servants with invitations. Yet many on his list have excuses, even very reasonable excuses. One is getting married, another has a deal on a cow coming in, and so on. (It’s not the red-hot sins of passion that keep people from God. More often it’s business as usual.) Eventually the king implores his servants to search for anyone who will come—talk them into it! Tell them it’s free, tell them that they don’t have to have a ticket. Make sure that my house is full.
In Matthew’s telling there is a highly symbolic addition, where a guest is thrown out for not wearing a wedding garment. One way to understand that is the wedding garment of a ready heart. We need to have an openness and desire for God’s grace. We’ve got to yearn for it or we will not be ready for it.
Before the parable of the wedding feast, in Luke 14:12, Jesus says when you give a lunch or a dinner don’t ask your friends, brothers, relations or rich neighbors, for fear that they might repay you. Then you’d be back into the meritocracy game. They might invite you in return out of courtesy.
Jesus is telling his followers: Get out of the worthiness game entirely. When you have a party invite the poor, the crippled, the lame, the blind so that they cannot pay you back. This will mean you are fortunate. We see it at the wedding feast at Cana in John’s Gospel and we see it at the Last Supper. In the Gospels, the banquet is a wonderful symbol of God’s free and unconditional love—a love that is often ignored or rejected.
It’s still hard for us to believe. God is trying to give away God. And no one wants God. We seem to prefer the worthiness system, where we earn what we get. But that’s not God’s invitation.
MARY SHOWS US THE WAY
Christians can look to Mary for guidance on how to accept the invitation. She received the gift perfectly. Perhaps the men of the Bible were too proud? Mary realizes in her personhood the whole mystery. She does it right, she does it simply, she does it cleanly and trustfully and perfectly.
When the angel Gabriel announces to Mary God’s plans for her, he says, “Hail, Mary, full of grace.” This of course has become a central Christian prayer. We should listen to these words very carefully. The words after the “Hi!” (Hail), mean “you who are as favored as you can possibly be favored.” Our translation fails to grasp the power of that concept.
Favor is something that is given to you from another. It’s not saying something about Mary, it’s saying something about God’s chosenness and election of Mary. That’s what she received. We call it full of grace—one who is the absolutely perfect receiver. She receives without questioning, without the worthiness or meritocracy game: “Just let it be done unto me.”
Yes, she is worried about not being married and says so. But when she hears God’s loving acceptance of her, she sets her worry aside. She lets go and trusts God. She doesn’t bring up questions of buying and selling. She forgets about worthiness and unworthiness. That’s why she is full of grace.
She shows us what her son grew up to tell the world: that God’s favor is free, that God sets a banquet for everyone. We have only to accept the invitation.
Richard Rohr, O.F.M., is founder and animator of the Center for Action and Contemplation in Albuquerque, New Mexico. He gives retreats and lectures internationally. This article is adapted from his best-selling audiocassette series,New Great Themes of Scripture (St. Anthony Messenger Press).
Part 5 — Student Conduct
Section V — Miscellaneous Conduct Regulations
A. Guests in Student Residence Units
Within certain University-set limitations, residence units may determine the hours during which guests of the opposite sex may visit individual student rooms in undergraduate residence units. By secret ballot, a majority of the residents of the unit can approve a more restrictive policy. Any resident must be guaranteed his/her privacy, which takes priority over a guest. Individual students wishing to visit friends of the opposite sex in their rooms do so in conformance with the approved plan in that particular residence unit. Check the guest hours policy posted in the residence unit.
Guest hours for students of the same sex are limited only by the policy of the particular residence unit.
B. Financial Obligations
Students should make every effort to keep their credit good in the community for their own benefit and that of all students.
Students with past due financial obligations to the University may have their registration encumbered. (See Scholastic Records, Encumbrance, in Section X-D under Part II, in this handbook.) Degree candidates delinquent in financial obligations must remove such debts at least one week before the close of any term. Otherwise his/her diploma may be withheld, or if the degree is granted without knowledge of such delinquency, the degree may be revoked and the diploma cancelled.
C. Absence from the University
For emergency purposes, it is important that the University be able to locate students at all times. All students are requested, therefore, to leave information with the office of their University residence unit and the officer of any other unit or at least a roommate when they are off campus and especially if they are going out of town. They are also encouraged to let their parents know when they will be away from campus for out-of-town travel.
D. Change of Address
Students are required to notify the registrar of any change of campus or home address.
E. Use of Alcoholic Beverages
- All Purdue students are responsible for complying with the Indiana state laws. Attention is called to the Indiana Alcoholic Beverages Law that states specifically:
- No person under 21 years of age may use or be in possession of alcoholic beverages.
- Persons 21 or over may not make alcoholic beverages available to minors.
- Misrepresentation of age for the purpose of purchasing alcoholic beverages is a violation of state law.
- In addition to Indiana state laws, the following University regulations apply:
- The University prohibits the possession, consumption, distribution, or sale of alcoholic beverages, as defined by state law, in or on any University property, with the following exceptions:
Personal possession and consumption of alcoholic beverages are permitted in Purdue Village (family apartments only), resident rooms in Young and Hawkins halls occupied exclusively by graduate students, and by registered occupants of guest rooms in the Union Club and Young and Hawkins halls, subject to compliance with all University regulations and applicable Indiana state laws.
Possession, consumption, distribution, and sale of alcoholic beverages are permitted, with advance approval by the Executive Vice President and Treasurer or his/her designee, in areas designated by the University and under the supervision of the Purdue Memorial Union or the Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, subject to compliance with all University regulations and applicable Indiana state laws.
- The University prohibits the serving of alcoholic beverages in any University undergraduate residence hall, and at any function on campus where a majority of attendees are projected by University management to be less than 21 years of age.
All policies and procedures regarding the approval of and funding for a student organizational event must be complied with and completed before a request for service of alcoholic beverages will be considered (Approved by the Board of Trustees, May 31, 1997).
- Members of recognized fraternities, sororities, and cooperative housing organizations shall be subject to the following conditions concerning the possession and consumption of alcoholic beverages on the premises of their
- Under no circumstances may alcoholic beverages be sold. Alcoholic beverages may not be available at any event where an admission fee is charged.
- Alcoholic beverages may not be consumed outside the house.
- Alcoholic beverages and containers for alcoholic beverages may not be displayed outside the house.
- Alcoholic beverages may not be provided or consumed at any open event. (For purposes of these regulations, an event is open if verbal or written invitations are extended en masse to the general public or to an unreasonable large segment of the campus community [i.e., a number of invited guests greater than a host house can reasonably expect to accommodate, which is determined by the Office of the Dean of Students to be no more than three invited guests for each resident of the host house]. An event is closed if only members of the sponsoring organization[s] and their personally invited guests participate. There may be no more than four organizations participating in an event at a host house, regardless of the aforementioned three-to-one policy.)
- All sponsoring organizations are equally responsible for open and closed events and for compliance with University regulations and applicable laws.
- The University prohibits the possession, consumption, distribution, or sale of alcoholic beverages, as defined by state law, in or on any University property, with the following exceptions:
- See Executive Memorandum C-44, Alcohol and Drug-Free Campus and Workplace Policy (June 12, 1998).
F. Use of Motor Vehicles, Bicycles, Skateboards, In-line Skates, and Traffic Regulations
Anyone using motor vehicles or bicycles on the West Lafayette Campus is responsible for observing the detailed regulations regarding their use. Copies are available at the Parking Facilities Office.
Before considering the use of a vehicle a student should be aware of the following basic regulations:
- In general, all parking during restricted hours (7 a.m. – 5 p.m. M–F) is by permit or in the Grant Street Parking Garage. Some areas and spaces are restricted at all times.
- All motor vehicle and bicycle operators must comply with state and municipal laws or ordinances.
- Bicycles are not permitted inside any University building and must be parked in bicycle racks or pads provided for this purpose. (It is recommended that parked bicycles be locked.)
- Skateboards are prohibited on the north and south academic campuses. Skateboards and in-line skate usage is prohibited on any surface that could be damaged.
- Operators or owners of vehicles are subject to fines if they are in violation of the motor vehicle or bicycle regulations.
G. Student Identification Cards
Every student who pays fees is issued a permanent identification card by the Office of the Bursar after payment of fees. The student identification card permits him/her to attend various events, take books out of the library, cash checks, establish charge accounts, etc., where his/her identification as a student is required. These identification cards are University documents and may not be altered in any way. Any defacement or alteration of the identification card is a violation of University regulations and is subject to disciplinary action. The identification card is a personal document and should never be out of its owner’s possession. It is validated by the bursar at the beginning of each semester when fees are paid. If the identification card is lost, it may be replaced by the Office of the Bursar upon the written request of the student. A replacement fee will be charged.
H. All students are subject to the University policy on intellectual property, Executive Memorandum B-10, as amended from time to time.
I. Use of Copyrighted Materials
All members of the Purdue University community are responsible for complying with the United States Copyright Law and with Purdue University’s Executive Memorandum B-53, as amended from time to time, which governs the use of copyrighted works for educational and research purposes.
Copyright is a federal law that protects creative works such as Web sites, CD’s, DVD’s, audio and visual works, computer programs, books, and journals. Copyright allows authors to control the use of their works for a limited period of time. Authors or the owners of the copyrighted work have exclusive rights to the work. It is their decision as to whether the work can be copied and/or distributed. Violating the copyright owner’s rights is considered copyright infringement and may be subject to legal action.
Works are protected for a limited period of time but once that time period has expired, the work becomes part of the public domain. The public can then freely use the works without paying royalties or obtaining permission from the copyright holder.
Works created on or after January 1, 1978, are protected for a term of the life of the author plus 70 years. If the work is a product of a corporate author, then the protection is for the shorter of 95 years from first publication or 120 years from creation. Works that were published prior to 1923 no longer have copyright protection and are in the public domain. Any work created or published from 1923 to the present time should be considered still protected by the copyright law.
There are exemptions to the copyright law that allow use of a work without seeking permission. One of the most utilized exemptions in higher education is the fair use exemption. This exemption is a four factor test that weighs whether the use of a work is fair under certain circumstances. If the use is not fair and no other exemption is applicable to the specific use of the work, then permission from the copyright holder must be granted before the work can be used.
For further information on the copyright law, please visit the University Copyright Office’s Web site at http://www.lib.purdue.edu/uco.
J. Commerical Note Taking in Classes (University Senate Document 03-9, April 19, 2004.)
As used in this paragraph, the term “instructor” is defined as the individual who authored the material being presented as part of the course.
Among the materials that may be protected by copyright law are the lectures, notes, and other material presented in class or as part of the course. Always assume the materials presented by an instructor are protected by copyright unless the instructor has stated otherwise. Students enrolled in, and authorized visitors to, Purdue University courses are permitted to take notes, which they may use for individual/group study or for other non-commercial purposes reasonably arising from enrollment in the course or the University generally.
Notes taken in class are, however, generally considered to be “derivative works” of the instructor’s presentations and materials, and they are thus subject to the instructor’s copyright in such presentations and materials. No individual is permitted to sell or otherwise barter notes, either to other students or to any commercial concern, for a course without the express written permission of the course instructor. To obtain permission to sell or barter notes, the individual wishing to sell or barter the notes must be registered in the course or must be an approved visitor to the class. Course instructors may choose to grant or not grant such permission at their own discretion, and may require a review of the notes prior to their being sold or bartered. If they do grant such permission, they may revoke it at any time, if they so choose.
Here are some suggestion to reduce the chances you’ll be hurt, arrested, or wildly embarrassed.
Protect your health and safety:
- Obey laws.
- If you’re over 21 and choose to drink alcoholic beverages, keep your consumption moderate. (0 drinks if you’re driving, 1 per hour sets the pace, no more than 3 per day.) For more information, see the Blood Alcohol Content page.
- If you’re drinking, also eat food.
- Avoid any party that you haven’t specifically been invited to. Even with the best of intentions by hosts and guest alike, an “open house” kegger is a high risk situation.
- Attend with a friend and look out for each other.
- Leave your valuables at home. Carry only the ID and money you’ll need that night.
- If you choose to be sexually active, bring and use condoms and other latex barriers.
- Keep track of bottle caps: ever lose track of how many drinks you’ve consumed? Each time you have a beer, stick the bottle cap or can tab in your pocket. That way you’ll always know exactly how many drinks you’ve had.
- Stay off all roofs and any balcony that’s crowded.
- Don’t play with fire.
- Don’t argue with cops.
- Remember drugs and alcohol don’t mix – even over-the-counter and prescription drugs can be very dangerous when combined with alcohol.
Protect your reputation and be invited back.
- Avoid behavior that might get your hosts in big trouble – such as sneaking an underage drink, carrying alcoholic drinks onto public property, throwing bottles, etc.
- Treat your hosts, their home, and their other gusts with respect.
- Clean up after yourself.
- Obey requests from hosts to quiet down, leave, or stop drinking.
- Bring a snack to share. Everyone appreciates an extra bag of chips.
- Mingle, talk to new people – especially that shy one in the corner.
Tips for Party Hosts
Have stuff around that is not alcoholic. Pick up some water, Powerade, Coke, and juice.
Pretzels & Chips
Everybody likes pretzels and chips when they drink – and they’re super cheap. Grab a couple bags. Not to mention, a full stomach slows the pace at which alcohol is absorbed.
Ask most party-goers – the host never has enough toilet paper. Always keep a ton of toilet paper around.
No one wants to stick to their own floor when they are walking around the day after a party. Pick up some Fantastick for stains, and some general cleaning supplies like a brrom, a bucket, a mop, extra trash bags, and air fresheners.
Finally returning to my series on the Nine Noble Virtues in Heathenry (and returning at least for the time being to blogging in general), I’d like to explore the virtue of hospitality. This virtue happens to be my favorite virtue, as I consider it to be a pinnacle of human achievement. In my original article, I said of hospitality that it “…does not lock itself indoors, nor does it suffer the hindrance of inconvenience. It is the greatest of the nine virtues because to have it, one must also have the other eight.” It seems like a pretty bold claim, for a virtue that some consider to mean little more than serving a meal to the occasional guest; but there is another way in which to view hospitality, a way in which this virtue represents humanity at its best, and it is in this way that I tend to regard it ….
First, I’d like to have a look at a few concepts of hospitality, left to us in the corpus of our lore. Some of our most common references to hospitality are in the Heathen poem, Hávamál (”Words of the High One,” or Odin):
3. Fire he needs | who with frozen knees
Has come from the cold without;
Food and clothes | must the farer have,
The man from the mountains come.
4. Water and towels | and welcoming speech
Should he find who comes, to the feast;
If renown he would get, | and again be greeted,
Wisely and well must he act.
Food, drink, warmth, and comfort are some of the physical needs that these two stanzas indicate should be provided to the guest by the host. These stanzas, if taken literally, would also seem to indicate an almost ritualized approach to hospitality. Since I’m not usually a fan of taking the lore literally, I would like to point out that there are examples in the lore of a guest arriving at another’s hall where towels and water aren’t mentioned (namely Vafþrúðnismál, and Skáldskaparmál XVII). In the one example I’m aware of fire being offered to the guest, the host wound up falling on his own sword (Grímnismál, prose introduction and ending). So while ritualized hospitality does have its own aesthetic and social charm, I do not see a mandate for it in ancient or modern Heathen practice.
The two stanzas from Hávamál signify to me that someone we welcome as a guest should simply feel welcomed and comfortable. Their basic needs should be looked after: if the guest is cold, see to his or her warmth; if the guest is hungry or thirsty, see to his or her food and drink; if the guest is tired, see to the guest’s sleeping arrangements. Essentially, offering a guest the hospitality of your home is to share your home – I see this as offering someone a chance, for a short while, to live as part of the home. As such, I don’t think heaping luxury on a guest is a wise expression of hospitality, unless heaps of luxury are normal things around the home. An example of this is the ample amounts of food and drink that can be offered to a guest at Valhalla by the gods … while some might see this as an example of why offering a feast to guests is the ideal, I keep in mind that inexhaustible amounts of food and drink are the daily routine for Valhalla. Valhalla can offer a grand feast to its guests because it offers a grand feast to its residents on a daily basis (Gylfaginning XXXVIII).
An approach to hospitality that focuses more on sharing and less on formalized ritual or luxuriating should not be seen as a light or casual approach – sharing, the degree to which we can share, and the broad spectrum of things we are capable of sharing, is one of the things that defines humanity (as does our capacity for selfishness and apathy toward others, sadly). Sharing what we have with someone is not just living up to a virtue, it’s honoring one of our distinguishing attributes, and there is nothing light or casual about this. I liken it to the misunderstanding many have regarding the Heathen relationship to our gods: many non-Heathens take our lack of formalized reverence for disrespect, when it’s actually one of our highest expressions of sacredness.
If renown he [the guest] would get, | and again be greeted,
Wisely and well must he act.
We are also reminded by this line (from the stanza cited above) that the guest shares responsibilities when it comes to hospitality. As with host responsibilities, Hávamál provides us with some guest responsibilities, most of which are common sense and basically boil down to the guest not abusing the host’s hospitality. Bookmarking the subject of guest responsibilities for later, where this line ultimately leads is to the question of with whom we should share hospitality, and whether or not it is in accordance with this virtue to actually refuse hospitality to someone. For an indication from the lore, I offer the following stanza, from Hávamál:
136. Strong is the beam | that raised must be
To give an entrance to all;
Give it a ring, | or grim will be
The wish it would work on thee.
In a more modern sense, this stanza warns of leaving our homes open to all. That, combined with the previous line about guests acting wisely and well if they would be invited to return, makes it pretty clear that at least insofar as this poem is concerned, the hospitality of our home does not need to be offered to everyone. If our Heathen forebears believed differently, then their doors would have simply opened, uncontested, for their enemies … somehow, that doesn’t seem to have been a likely practice. Guests who abuse hospitality or are in some other way a nuisance to their host do not need to be invited back. The way I look at it is to judge whether or not the potential guest would be able or willing to exist harmoniously in my home – if not, then that person will not be a guest in my home, simple as that. This, then, brings us back to guest responsibilities.
A guest’s single responsibility, as far as I’m concerned, is to exist harmoniously in whatever home they are staying in. A proper host should see to the comfort of his or her guest, and a proper guest should see to it that he does not himself become a discomfort or burden to his host. At this level, the sharing is reciprocal and evenly matched … although an uncommon perspective that requires a bit of flexibility of interpretation, the host-guest relationship of sharing can be seen as one of sacrifice, where both give of themselves in honor of something greater (though often unspoken): community.
The sacredness of sharing, then, is how I tie this virtue to representing humanity at its best. This might explain why our ancestors believed our gods would sometimes approach them as guests, to test their hospitality – it certainly helps to explain why I believe it. How does it require that all other of the Nine Noble Virtues first exist, though? The first part of this answer is found in the first line of my hospitality maxim:
True hospitality does not lock itself indoors, nor does it suffer the hindrance of inconvenience.
To share of ourselves with others, we do not have to be under our own roof. On the road, in the wilderness, or even on the city bus, it’s possible to provide comfort and safety to others. We can consider others to be guests in our presence, wherever that presence happens to be – just as we can consider ourselves to be guests in the presence of others. If we look at ourselves as potential guests or hosts wherever we go, and we define these roles of hospitality as described above, then we have a template for conduct that encourages us to try to exist in harmony with our environment, not be a burden or nuisance to others, and be ready to help others when we can. While this may seem to be a very broad usage of hospitality, it is to some extent attested to in these stanzas from Hávamál:
47. Young was I once, | and wandered alone,
And nought of the road I knew;
Rich did I feel | when a comrade I found,
For man is man’s delight.
52. No great thing needs | a man to give,
Oft little will purchase praise;
With half a loaf | and a half-filled cup
A friend full fast I made.
Although I often look to my patron, Njord, when it comes to ideas of hospitality, our mighty Thor is perhaps a more readily explainable example of my perspectives on this virtue. Thor is, among many things, a god who enjoys travel. Thor is also a god who provides us with safety. When Thor travels, he does so in his chariot, drawn by the goats, Tanngrisnir and Tanngnjóstr. Thor can slaughter these goats, providing a meal for himself and his company (as in Gylfaginning XLIV) while on the road; so it can be said that wherever Thor goes, he can provide food and safety to those in his presence. At the same time, Thor can make an uninvited guest rue his transgression (as in Alvíssmál). Thor, when viewed in this light, exemplifies all of the Nine Noble Virtues, including hospitality.
With this in mind, it should be possible to conceive of Hospitality requiring Courage, Truth, Honor, Fidelity, Discipline, Self-Reliance, Industriousness, and Perseverance. It takes some of these virtues just to have something to offer to someone else in the first place, while others are required for either making others feel safe around you, or allowing you to feel safe around others. Because this is the only virtue that truly requires the presence of all others of the Nine Noble Virtues, I consider it to be the greatest among them – just as Thor is considered greatest among our gods. Because hospitality also embodies the very same spirit of sharing, of give and take, of sacrifice that has enabled us to survive all these thousands of years, I say that it is not just a virtue, but that it represents one of our greatest achievements as living beings.
A LESSON OF HUMILITY: Did Jesus exaggerate with His parable? I think not. It reminds me of a fiesta in our parish a long time ago. After the solemn Mass, the late Cardinal Sin went to the parish hall for the well-prepared snack. He, the priests, and the parish council president and members were seated at the presidential table. One seat was still empty and suddenly an elderly man came in, saw the empty seat, went there and sat down. When the person who was supposed to sit there arrived, the uninvited guest had to be asked to please vacate the seat.
Yes it happens. In the case of our fiesta it was surely lack of sensitivity or common sense by the man. But in the meal Jesus attended, he seems to give us a lesson in humility.
Humility! A virtue lacking so much in today’s macho society. Who wants to be humble? Because humility is often interpreted as weakness and cowardice.
What then is this humility that Jesus wants us to acquire?
St. Bernard defined humility as “a virtue by which a person knows himself as he truly is, lowers himself. Jesus Christ is the ultimate definition of humility.
St. Thomas Aquinas, the great 13th century philosopher and theologian, defines humility similarly as “the virtue of humility that consists in keeping oneself within one’s own bounds, not reaching out to things above one, but submitting to one’s superior.”
“True humility” is distinctly different from “false humility,” which consists of denigrating one’s own sanctity, gifts, talents and accomplishments for the sake of receiving praise from others. In this context, legitimate humility consists of the following behaviors and attitudes: Submitting oneself to God and His legitimate authority; recognizing virtues and talents that others have, particularly those which outshines one’s own, and giving due honor recognizing the limits of one’s talents, abilities or authority, and not reaching out for what is beyond one’s grasp.
To be really humble needs a lot of courage and strength. It’s far from weakness! (Fr. Rudy Horst SVD, SABBATH Scripture Meditation for Daily Life October 29, 2011 p. 309)
November 3, 2012
St. Martin de Porres, religious
Saturday of the 30th Week
Lk 14:1, 7-11
Lk 14:1, 7-11
Conduct of Invited Guests and Hosts
1On a sabbath [Jesus] went to dine at the home of one of the leading Pharisees, and the people there were observing him carefully.
7He told a parable to those who had been invited, noticing how they were choosing the places of honor at the table. 8“When you are invited by someone to a wedding banquet, do not recline at table in the place of honor. A more distinguished guest than you may have been invited by him, 9and the host who invited both of you may approach you and say, ‘Give your place to this man,’ and then you would proceed with embarrassment to take the lowest place. 10Rather, when you are invited, go and take the lowest place so that when the host comes to you he may say, ‘My friend, move up to a higher position.’ Then you will enjoy the esteem of your companions at the table. 11For everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, but the one who humbles himself will be exalted.”
Places of honor. The Gospel speaks of the code of conduct when it comes to any celebration. And the conduct must involve humility. One should not presume that he is a very important person deserving a seat at the presidential table, the one for the guests of honor, the choicest portion, the center of attention and applause.
Jesus tells us to be humble—we should always think of ourselves as equally lowly with other people. We must realize that we are all created by God with equal human dignity. Since we are just stewards of God’s creation, we should never be self-seeking or presumptuous. It is God who makes things happen, who grants success and recognition, and who exalts us when we humble ourselves. True honors come from God. We should be aware of our humble status before God.
Why is it hard to be humble? Do you practice humility in your dealings with other people?
How do you recognize false humility?
Friday, October 30, 2015
Reflection for October 31, Saturday of the Thirtieth Week in Ordinary Time: Luke 14:1, 7-11
Reflection:Do you always love to be at the forefront so that others would notice you? Do you hunger for honor and accolades? Or you’re the type who prefers to do things quietly without any desire to be noticed with what you’re doing?
In our gospel, Jesus talks about our need to always be humble and not to love the spotlight. However, it’s so tempting for many of us to love to be exalted, to love praise and honor.
But come to think of it, when we love the spotlight; when we love honorific titles. We are actually giving more importance to this world more than we give importance to God. We become creatures of this world so to speak.
But what is prominence, what is honor? As time passes by prominence, honor and anything that is worldly and self-serving will fade away. Thus, anything that we do for the love of ourselves and of this world will be buried and will not be remembered anymore.
But our acts of humility? It will outlive us; it will permanently be etched in the heart of God and in the hearts of those who know us. – Marino J. Dasmarinas
Friday, October 30, 2015
SATURDAY OF THE 30TH WEEK IN ORDINARY TIME (YEAR B) – LUKAS 14:1, 7-11. UNSA MAN ANG TINUOD NGA PAGPAUBOS? Karong adlawa gihatagan kita ni Hesus og hulagway sa tawong mapaubsanon. Siya ang tawo nga dili mangandoy sa pagdayeg sa uban. Dili siya makig-ilog sa taas nga hut-ong sa katilingban. Dili siya mamintaha ug maniguro para sa iyang kaugalingon. Ang maong tawo magpaulahi dili tungod kay maglikay siya nga mahago o mahasol, kondili tungod kay gusto niyang ipahiluna ang uban una sa iyang kaugalingon. Siya ang tawo nga mahimong dako atubangan sa Ginoo tungod kay “ang magpataas ipaubos, ug ang magpaubos ipataas”. Kining ebanghelyo magdasig kanato sa pagpabiling mapaubsanon ug manggihunahunaon sa isigkaingon. Sakto si C.S. Lewis sa iyang pag-ingon, “True humily is not thinking less of yourself; it is thinking of yourself less.” Posted by Abet Uy
Tuesday, October 25, 2016
Reflection for Saturday October 29, Thirtieth Week in Ordinary Time; Luke 14:1, 7-11
What can humility do to your life? Among many other things humility can give you peace and contentment. With humility you can also win over your adversaries so that they will become your friends.
There is a story of a husband who was always critical of his wife in whatever she does. She would always dictate on his wife and would shout at her whenever he commits a mistake. After many years of being together the wife had already enough of the dominating behavior of her husband. She therefore finally decided to silently walk away from her husband.
Many of us are afraid to imbibe humility because we are afraid that we would be dominated. But humility doesn’t work that way, humility is to purposely decrease in the eyes of men and let God’s exaltation come to us at His own appointed time.
For example if the situation calls for us to say yes and follow lawful orders by all means we have to say yes and follow. Thus, we have to do the task that is given to us with utmost competence. We give it our all until we are able to achieve what is expected of us.
There is always a reward that accompanies humility and that is honor and exaltation from God. Honor and exaltation that will be given to you when you least expect it. – Marino J. Dasmarinas
Saturday of the 30th Week in the Ordinary Time
Rom 11: 1-2a, 11-12, 25-29
Humility and Hospitality
Jesus used in his teaching simple and dynamic language. The abstract terms like equality, fellowship, love, justice etc. do not adequately capture his teaching and vision. His vision is captured in and evoked by simple and dynamic language. Examples- “sell you have, distribute among the poor, wash your face while fasting, come and follow me, unless you become like children, on and ninety nine, blessed are the poor. In today’s Gospel Jesus says, “When you are invited, take the lowest place… then you will be honoured in the presence of all (Lk 14: 10).
Characteristics of Jesus’ Ministry
A sense of personal God given authority answerable to none
A man of courage, sensitivity, hope, independence, and compassion
» Life built about the presence of God’s reign and the awareness of the Spirit
» Lived within his own religious traditions, yet at time undermined understandings and practices of various groups. Included in his kingdom are the marginalized and the oppressed groups. Aware that he meditates God’s forgiveness
» Exorcises evil spirits, heals various types of sickness in the context of faith
» Stressed the essential place for interiority
» Uncovers the dangers of hypocrisy, greed/wealth, power, purity of laws, types of religiosity, traditions of elders, social evils authority roles, enmity
» Gave a central place to human in the light of his experience of God
» Convey truth through strong contrasts, paradoxes, parables
» Spelt out the unattainable horizons of human life and lived with human frailty
» Did not romanticize poor, authority figures and sinners
» Does not place barriers between himself & any category of person in his society
Characteristics of humility
» A humble person is fully aware of the limitations of his knowledge and information and is always ready to learn
» A humble person is that he/she respects the dignity of the other persons
» A humble person is never arrogant in his thought, speech and behaviour
» Even when disagreeing with others, a humble person dose it with dignity and with great respect for others
» A humble person believes that truth is multidimensional. A humble person thinks if he/she wants to get the full truth he/she has to listen to others to understand their perspectives.
» The humble person is that he/she does not have any difficulty to say ‘sorry’ the moment he/she realized something wrong was done to the other person
» The humble person is ready to receive ideas and thoughts from others with due acknowledgements, not mere copying
» A humble person looks for synergy. He/she is not threatened by conflicting ideas. He/she searches for alternatives, going beyond, “my ways” accepting “our ways”
» A humble person is a listening person. Stephen Covey in his book, The ‘Third Alternative’ says “You are given two ears and one mouth. Use them proportionally. Listening is more tiring than speaking Fr. Shepherd Thelappilly CMI
THE TRUMP QUESTION – For everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, but the one who humbles himself will be exalted. – Luke 14:11
I used to be fond of watching Donald Trump’s The Apprentice on television. I was thrilled to watch how different personalities with diverse backgrounds would collaborate and at the same time compete in a pseudo-corporate reality TV environment. Very often, Donald Trump would utter one of his signature questions in the boardroom: “Do you think that you are better than (another contestant)?”
In our daily grind, we are often tempted to answer that same question. We think: I need to be better than him to get a promotion. I need to shine so I can stand out more than the other guy.
Comparisons like these are not unique to the corporate world. I used to compare myself with others in ministry or service. I would subconsciously compare my level of success with my classmates in high school. The list goes on.
I realized that answering that Trump question lowers my standard. I don’t need to be “better” than the next guy. I don’t need to put down people to lift myself up. All I need is to be the best I can be — to work at it with my heart and soul. Jesus’ standard is the standard: humility in excellence. Ariel Driz (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Reflection: Have you been lowering your standard by comparing yourself with others? Are you following God’s standard of humility?
Father, thank You for reminding me that I don’t need to put others down to go up. Help me to be humble and excellent for Your glory.
October 29, 2016
It is difficult to have a balanced view of death. Some people seem to be in love with death, either because they are constantly defying death in daredevil stunts, or they attempt suicide at every occasion, or they talk of nothing else. In complete contrast to these death-worshippers are the people who are so terrified of death that they avoid, as the plague, any mention or reference to it. As Christians, what should be our attitude towards death?
To fear death instinctively is natural. After all, the apostle Paul calls it an enemy (1 Cor 15:26) and Jesus himself feared it (Mt 14:34). This fear is an instinct given by God to help us stay alive. But faith should help us to overcome this fear, because by faith we know that death marks the moment we will be with God in bliss forever. Paul says in today’s first reading that he desires greatly “to leave this life and to be with Christ.” And all the saints were eager to die precisely for this reason.
Let us examine our own attitude toward death. Do we see it as something eminently desirable or do we see it as the supreme catastrophe?